Red Spruce Picea rubens
Family: Pinaceae (Pine)
Branching: Evergreen

Red Spruce is an eastern tree, and its range hardly touches Ontario.  However, in the heart of its range, it is very common.  It is more related to Black Spruce, though its habitat is more similar to White Spruce.  It is found in drier upland forests, though it apparently does hybridize with Black Spruce where they overlap.  The twigs are slightly hairy; not as much as Black Spruce, but hairier than White Spruce.  Its needles are thin and more sparsely spaced than the other Spruces.  The needles are yellowish and the line of white waxy dots on them are not as obvious as the other Spruces.  Also, the needles tend to be curved outward (Black Spruce needles are generally straight).  The mature bark is quite dark and lacks much of the reddish hue that White and Norway Spruces have.  

Red Spruce branch

Red Spruce twig and needles

Red Spruce twig

Close-up of Red Spruce twig.  Notice the slight hairiness and faint lines of white waxy dots.

Another view of the Red Spruce twig

A view of the underside of a Red Spruce twig

Another close-up of the Red Spruce twig (from the underside)

Young bark of Red Spruce

Mature bark of Red Spruce

Close up of mature bark

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copyright 2008 Josh Sayers
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